A neo-Fregean argument to the effect that every object belongs to a unique category is criticized and an … Let's look at Caesar from the viewpoint of Phrenology. Although each of the major characters (except, interestingly, Portia) describes at least once a deep relationship between the two men, Brutus's responses to Caesar on the whole reveal the same formality and distance that characterize his relationships with other friends and lovers. . / Now I have taken heart thou vanishest" (IV.iii.286-87). Tim hurried through his example. 'Terence Eagleton, Shakespeare and Society: Critical Studies in Shakespearean Drama (New York: Schocken Books, 1967), p. 204. And one might argue, as H.A. . *'E.A.J. Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus. Like “Of all the wonders that I have heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing death, a necessary end, Will come when it … Caesar became the first Roman figure to be deified. Along these lines, Frederic K. Hargreaves, Jr., maintains that Wittgenstein's work also "calls into question the traditional view of emotions as private, subjective experiences which are named by emotion words and which give these words their meaning" as it emphasizes "again the fact that reference to private experience must be subject to some public criteria for the words to have meaningn ('The Concept of Private Meaning in Modern Criticism," CritI7, 4 [Summer 19811: 72746, 729, 729-30). This "name" is peculiar to him, a quality that others recognize, and by it especially does Brutus place himself among his fellows; indeed, his fellow Romans recognize this quality of Brutus as easily as they recognize his "outward favor" (I.ii.90-91; II.i.23'7-56). shaunaritchey. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. And really, Brutus decides quite easily that "it must be by his death." Figure of Julius Caesar in Michel de Montaigne’s Essais 131 Louisa Mackenzie 9 Manifest Destiny and the Eclipse of Julius Caesar 148 Margaret Malamud 10 Caesar, Cinema, and National Identity in the 1910s 170 Maria Wyke 11 Caesar the Foe: Roman Conquest and National Resistance in French Popular Culture 190 We behold, on the one hand, the implacable code, and on the other, the slippery signifier-the contemporary equivalents of Predestination and Fortune. The playwright's effort here is, however, only partially successful. 'No man," Brutus asserts, 'bears sorrow better" (IV.iii.147). The History Of Julius Caesar. and find homework help for other Julius Caesar questions at eNotes "Robert B. Heilman, Tragedy and Melodrama: Versions of Experience (Seattle: Univ. For Shakespeare the outside world of society is inseparable from what a person's character unfolds as his 'bel~ngings. Despite Cassius's own assessment of their conversation (I.ii.305-19), he does not seduce Brutus into the conspiracy against Caesar. Or to put it differently, with which parts of self does the assassination align him? He behaves as if what he has rejected- friendship and citizenship-still exist, and in a form enhanced by the shape of honor. That is because Julius Caesar was stabbed to death by members of his own council. 'His life was gentle' says Antony, summing up, and the audience normally agree^. Genre Identity Of Julius Caesar. (I.iv.220). above the view of men" (I.i.73-74). . The emotions, it would seem, are the most private element in one's "inner life," yet without denying the fact of bodily sensations and feelings or psychological states, Arlie Russell Hochschild suggests that "social psychology has suffered under the tacit assumption that emotion, because it seems unbidden and uncontrollable, is not governed by social rules" ("Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure,"American Journal of Sociology 85, 3 [November 19791: 551-75,551). . . Overtly, then, Brutus must choose between roles, for here the obligations of friendship oppose the obligations of citizenship. Thus if in reading or watching a Shakespearean play, one becomes aware, as Lear does, that "unaccommodated man is . / . "35 In such a critical milieu it is perhaps not surprising that a reworking during the 1960s and 1970s of the received opinion captured in a volume like Twentieth-Century Views should suggest (also disapprovingly) that Brutus's pursuit of honor actually supports personal rather than purely public aims. He explains his choice to focus on his public identity and doing what he believes is best for Rome. One must remember, as Cassius emphasizes again and again, that the legal status of the Republic is at issue here, not the character and deeds of Caesar. Although Caesar is loved and supported by his citizens, some begin to grow wary of his increase in power. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Brutus chooses to align his self with honor and he accepts the consequences of that choice, but unlike other Shakespearean heroes-Hamlet, Othello, Lear, Macbeth, Antony, or Coriolanus- he never understands that in a situation like his, in which the very components of self oppose one another, one gains only by losing. That is, the conspirators "stand up" not against the particular man, Julius Caesar, a friend and colleague who has a barren wife and the "falling sickness," but against the role itself that he would play, a role that is, one might note, bodiless and bloodless until someone begins to play it, to take it on as his own: And in the spirit of men there is no blood. 7H.A. we tend to devalue the public and to elevate the private. As Hugh, M. Richmond explains, Brutus's "very useful virtues of integrity disrupt the ruthless efficiency of Cassius's plot, at the same time as their popular appeal makes that plot possible. Can anyone imagine a man in Caesar's-or Lear's-position not associating his self with his role? The problem and its significance to some Fregean projects are explained. Can I use appear to, may, and many students have … In this scene of Act II, Brutus discusses the plot to kill Caesar with the other conspirators. Antony appears at the Capitol at the beginning of Act III, Scene 1, but he … 'Citations from Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear are taken from William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, rev. 'Mason, p. 7. gStephen Greenblatt, Renaissance SeIf-Fmhioning: From More to Shakespeare. Leonard F. Dean (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1968), judge negatively such privileging of honor, such a "mingling [of] the personal with the public," as Maurice Charney puts it (p. 75). Shakespeare makes the choice seem a difficult one for his hero by emphasizing how Brutus labors to realize it and by suggesting a strong intimacy between him and Caesar. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his enga… What Brutus does is align himself with honor, the dominant strand in his identity and, as Michael Platt observes, "the principle of the Rep~blic,"'~not with the demands of the politician's role he is playing currently (and as he thinks, temporarily). If Brutus is honorable and thus useful to men like Cassius, as well as domineering and thus dangerous to men like Cassius, he is also, it seems, a "gentle" man. 3SPhilip Edwards, "Person and Ofice in Shakespeare's Plays," Interpretations of Shakespeare: British Academy Shakespeare Lectures, ed. Wilson Knight, The Imperial Theme (London: Methuen, 1965), pp. In trying to attend to what Weimann calls the "rather neglectedn social dimension of Shakespeare's characterization^,^^ I suggest that in Shakespeare's world, a person is a social creature who remains an active agent in society, who influences her society even as she is defined by it and the social roles she comes to play. and the slippery signifier" requires us to rethink our modern and postmodern understanding of relationships between subjects and social structures. For a social history of the concept of honor in Renaissance England, see Charles Barber, The Idea of Honour in the English Drama, 1591-1700 (Goteborg: Gothenburg Studies in English, VI, 1957) and The Theme of Honour's Tongue: A Study of Social Attitudes in the English Drama from Shakespeare to Dlyden (Goteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1985). the regal, the conquering reality." jmcgriff3. More strikingly, Brutus takes over the direction of the conspiracy almost as soon as he becomes involved in it. "17 Instead, they argue, what one learns through action and interaction is social for the most part, the expected responsibilities and rights of membership in society, of the roles one plays in society. Kenneth Muir (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985), pp. In the face of Cassius's Realpolitik, Brutus argues that above all the conspiracy must avoid the appearance of a power-hungry group battling another for the state's power. The body must be able, to some extent, to appropriate as its own its mimetic reproduction of them."18. Critics must, he thinks, redefine the term subject, to suggest an equivocal process of subjectijlcation: on the one hand, shaping individuals as loci of consciousness and initiators of action-endowing them with subjectivity and with the capacity for agency; and, on the other hand, positioning, motivating, and constraining them within-subjecting them to- social networks and cultural codes that ultimately exceed their comprehension or control.14. . kmd_dancer. ― William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar. The point, he insists, is that the conspiracy heal "the sufferance of our souls, the time's abuse" (II.i.l15), not abuse the state in its own turn. Richmond claims that in the last acts "Brutus' is clearly a mind not in full possession of itself,"34 and it does seem that the gentle Roman wraps himself in a layer of protective honor. Investigating the genre identity of William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, first of all, I need to define the terms history play and tragedy, which are key instruments for the analysis. There is often confusion about his identity because there is another character in the play named Publius. IgRom Harrk explains that many "psychological" or subjective attributes have public or objective equivalents. More accurately, I would observe that in Brutus, unlike in the more obtuse Casca (I.ii.255; I.iii.85 , 116-20), Cassius finds a willing ear who readily understands his innuendo and who senses, if somewhat vaguely, that something fundamental besides power or even the Republic is at stake as Caesar moves closer to being crowned emperor. He tells them that his name is Cinna and his destination is Caesar's funeral. Brutus believes that the Republic's "illness" is the result of one man's action and that only his sacrifice is necessary to "cure" the state. More recently, Honigmann claims that Brutus "saves Antony, as he murders Caesar, thinking too much of Brutus-his own reputation, his own style-and this distracts his judgement and corrupts it" (p. 33). '6Symbolic interactionism is the school of sociology that develops out of pragmatist philosophy. In the end, Brutus acknowledges only what he has gained: Did not great Julius bleed for justice sake? After offering "a brief sampler of alternatives" (p. 56 n. 4), Danson decides that Brutus holds Shakespeare's tragic focus. Get an answer for 'Identify and explain the cobbler's puns in Julius Caesar.' The New Historicism, pp. III.i.235-50; III.ii.35-39, 88-89, 240-52). Did You Know? It is thus that Brutus feels Caesar must die, and justly (II.i.166- 80), for he would destroy the Republic, the public means of private authorization. I7Wolfgang Clemen, Shakespeare's Dramatic Art: Collected Essays (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 165. One possible answer, to invoke a rather prominent cluster of images in the play, is that Brutus misjudges the "healthn of the Republic. Brutus is the character in Juliw Caesar who is so tested. carried on to mask an emptiness" and thus is one "you can never, in fact, pin . Such criticism is coherent only if one posits a binary construction of the subject, a move that makes easy the dispensing of moral judgments-the personal is good and the public is bad, or the personal is bad and the public is good, or perhaps both are good or bad. . Brutus challenges Cassius, as he challenges Caesar, because each would subordinate means to ends. Hy het 'n rol gespeel in die transformasie van die Romeinse Republiek na die Romeinse Ryk.Caesar was 'n gewilde politikus en het 'n triumviraat saam met Marcus … Julius Caesar is a highly successful leader of Rome whose popularity seems to model that of a king's. '6Derek Traversi comments that "as always, Brutus is taking refuge in a satisfactory picture of himself as one who has dared, for 'honour' alone, to lead and inspire a conspiracy that overthrew 'the foremost man of all this world'; but where disinterest ends and egoism, the need to live up to an ennobling vision of his own motives, begins, we might be hard put to decide" (Shakespeare: The Roman Plays [Stanford: Stanford Univ. Weissman, UReconstructing Renaissance Sociology: The 'Chicago School' and the Study of Renaissance Society," Persom in Groups: Social Behavior as Identity Formation in Medieval and Renaissance Europe, ed. Moreover, Brutus's initial choice between the role demands of friendship and those of citizenship is weighted on the side of the latter by the requirements of Brutus's identity. What villain touched his body that did stab, This lack of self-consciousness, Brutus's failure to relish "love" (or even lost love), is what leads critics to judge him so harshly. The fortunes of the state rise and fall according to the efforts of all its citizens. Reinforced by a century of work in behavioral or psychoanalytic psychology, such an understanding of character or the self originates it seems in the Romantic's emphasis on his individuality; his attempt to assert the judgment of the individual above that of the group; his sense, as Terence Eagleton puts it, that "real living. But if the parts of Brutus's self are brought into conflict by the threat of Caesar's power, a sociological understanding of the self leads one to wonder what Brutus's decisions to join the conspiracy and to murder Caesar indicate about his self. That of yourself which you yet know not of. Caesar must die with "his glory not extenuated, wherein he was worthy; nor his offenses enforced, for which he suffered death" (III.ii.37-39). (Lanham, MD and London: Univ. "25 And similarly, Sigurd Burckhardt suggests that we, think of Cassius and Brutus as manifestly they think of them- selves: plotters in the dramatic sense, men who have decided to author and produce a tragedy entitled 'lulius Caesar. These growing feathers plucked from Caesar's wing, Who else would soar above the view of men. Honigmann, it. . The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first … equation the privileging of the subject's feelings and consciousness is a relatively recent phenomenon, and second, begin to consider how subjectivity (or autonomy) might be formed when we take into account the subject's location within a social structure, his or her roles, and the rights and obligations associated with them, rather than just his or her feelings and personal consciousness. Hochschild goes on to argue that like behavior and thought, emotion, too, is subject to standards established by and within a social group. Somewhat to Cassius' distress, Brutus takes his function very seriously and overrules his partner on a number of points which later turn out to be crucial.26. Indeed, out of love and respect the Romans have allowed Caesar great power and great range within the Republic, more than any man. . Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a military commander, politician and author at the end of the Roman Republic.. Caesar became a member of the First Triumvirate, and when that broke up, he fought a civil war against Pompey the Great. Despite Cassius's doubtlessly increasing displeasure, and despite his more politic judgments on each proposal in the planning and in the aftermath of the assassination, Brutus's will prevails again and again. "", Yet in a reversal urged by others as well, notably feminist and Marxist critics, Montrose holds out hope to the "beleaguered" agent by restating the position Weimann staked out almost a decade ago. Rose 24. "Naomi Conn Liebler, "'Thou Bleeding Piece of Earth': The Ritual Ground ofJulius Caesar," ShakS 14 (1981): 175-96, 193 n. 11. Brutus declares that this public love will come before his love for Caesar. [I.ii. Yet because I share with Weimann a conviction that one's social roles, one's positions in society, are part and parcel of one's personal identity, I find it difficult to criticize Brutus for either privileging or failing to privilege the personal. 'Weimann, p. 23. . is threatened by some significant change in the self's relation to others or to society. . One may equate this identity struggle with a more modern-day societal theme of finding a work-life balance. Brutus takes his "authorialn responsibilities seriously because, to extend the metaphor, he will be a leading character in the play he writes. He explains his choice to focus on his public identity and doing what he believes is best for Rome. Cassius puts the end of a Republic above the means for its preservation, and so, Brutus must oppose him. SoGeorge Herbert Mead, Mind, Self; and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist, ed. He explains his choice to focus on his public identity and doing what he believes is best for Rome. 6. but such a poor, bare, forked animal" (III.iv.101-102), one must acknowledge, too, that how man accommodates himself is certainly partly the result of his own efforts. My essay aims in part to suggest that such an approach to understanding the individual, such a positive understanding of the role of roles, is useful in discussing Shakespeare's characters. In the orchard scene, Brutus argues that if murder is necessary to preserve the Republic, it must remain a murder worthy of the victim, the men who would commit it, and the Republic itself. The victory is marked by public games in which Caesars friend, Mark Antony, takes part. Shakespeare's interest, perhaps, is not so much to explore the inner self, to cut to the quick, as to explore the self as it develops within society, as it makes the choices that determine its quality and character. Honigmann, Shakespeare: Seven Tragedies (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1976), p. 41. "Sigurd Burckhardt, Shakespearean Meanings (Princeton: Princeton Univ. The problem is neither his worth as a man nor the good he has done or even may do for Rome (cf. Julius's Sense Of Identity In Julius Caesar 1310 Words 6 Pages In these ways, while Julius has many connections as a half-Nigerian, half-German American immigrant, Julius doesn’t really own or have a real loyalty to any of these ties. shaunaritchey. If, through service and ability, as in Caesar's case, one man rises to think he may subdue the state, to make it rise and fall according only to his effort, the citizenry must deny his challenge (else "Romans are but sheep"). (Chicago and London: Univ. One learns to take into account the opinions and expectations of others in one's group-for example, one's family members or one's co-workers. In this play it is not Falstaff but Antony who makes the point that honor is only a word, subject to slippage and manipulation: "For Brutus is an honorable man; / So are they all, all honorable men" (III.ii.82-83). In Julius Caesar Shakespeare dramatises these issues through a series of confrontations between characters over the meanings of the male body as an idea and symbol, as a site where identity is asserted and imposed, and as a means of achieving social goals. Characters, like human beings, develop identity, a sense of self, within a context that is defined by the group; thus empowered, the character, like the individual, may affect the context in which he or she finds himself or herself. Knight concludes that "Brutus refuses love for honour. He hopes that his good friends will not "be grievedn at his inappropriate (role) behavior (line 43).28, In a similar vein, G. Wilson Knight holds that in Julius Caesar "love is . Press, 1968), p. 8. Whether it begins in Caesar or in Cassius, Brutus must oppose the "politic" course that would wrap unjust and dishonest means or ends in an appealing package. Social Role and the Making of Identity in Julius Caesar, No tags found. In both cases, the political pattern that is subtly evoked transcends in interest the vicissitudes of any single character" (Shakespeare's Political Plays [Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 19771, p. 203). The decision to spare Antony seems especially perplexing since Cassius does not allow Brutus to ignore this threat. In Renaissance studies, the dethroning of the individual, and its consequent redefinition as an inescapably constrained subject, came into focus with Stephen Greenblatt's Renaissance SelfFashi~ning.~, Greenblatt's well-known project was "to understand the role of human autonomy in the construction of identity. As Bruce Wilshire puts it, "a human being can become itself, its self, only when it makes its own what others have made of it. In playing her role as wife to Brutus, one may imagine that Portia is like the boy Lucius, who tries to keep pace with his insomniac lord because 'it is my duty" (IV.iii.260). Such a notion of identity, of the relationship between self and structure, is not, of course, the invention of either Weimann or this writer. Deborah Montuori bases an entire reading of Bwsy D'Ambois on the distinction supposedly made by Stephen Greenblatt in Renaissance SeY-Fashioning between, in Montuori's words, "the real, inward self and the outward role, self- or socially-imposed" ("The Confusion of Self and Role in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois," SEL 28, 2 [Spring 19883: 287-99, 289). I'll about. Getting beyond "the implacable code. Yet if Brutus desires to preserve the Republic, one must, it seems, question as Cassius does his judgment that only Caesar be killed. The relationship between self and society is thus one of (potential) mutual dependence and influence, not one of (necessary) confrontation or determinism. The name of honor more than I fear death. Knights hold (mistakenly, I think) that Juliw Caesar cannot interest readers or audiences as deeply as the later tragedies because, as Van Doren claims, its speeches do not "cut to the individual, and cut with so keen a knife that the individual is dissected in the process and seems to bleed his words" (p. 12). Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Brutus admits that he has no personal anger towards Caesar but would go against him for the good of Rome. The public sphere, on the other hand, seems depersonalized, empty, and more and more, simply false" Vames I and the Politics of Literature [Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Spanish Verbs 12 terms. This essay suggests that they are not mutually exclusive theatrical genres, and thus can be combined in one … 221n his important discussion of "role distance," found in Encounters: Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961), Erving, Goffman observes that "it is common in sociology to study the individual in terms of the conception he and others have of him, and to argue that these conceptions are made available to him through the role that he plays" (p. 132). … – 44 v.C.) The plebeians are celebrating Caesar's victory over the sons of Pompey, one of the former leaders of Rome. When William Shakespeare first staged his Roman tragedies Julius Caesar (1599) and Coriolanus (c. 1608), he did not introduce his audience to new stories. Cinna the poet is on his way to attend Caesar's funeral when he is accosted by a group of riotous citizens who demand to know who he is and where he is going. (p. 26). '*, Soon, shall we say by 1984, the death of the individual, whether author or critic or character, was firmly registered in the critical literature, and in some quarters now seems complete. See also Kenneth J. Gergen, "The Social Construction of Self-Knowledge," The Self Psychological and Philosophical Issues, ed. 14, 15. Individual is a value-laden term for us, and notions of privacy and of innate internal differences which make for individuality serve as founding principles in modern definitions of the human. The tribunes verbally attack the masses for their fickleness in celebrating the defeat of a man who was once their leader. Not once in the play does Brutus acquiesce in another's judgment. Mason does, that to enter fully into Homer's world or Shakespeare's, we must "retrace the course of history and think first of men banded together in social groups, and only in the second place of the individual members of the groups and their individual feeling^."^. . hoped to retreat from, to ease their memories of, radical political failure-the researchers, writers, and theorists who contributed to this point of view about character or the self take little or no account of the social environment in which that self exists and acts, interested as they are primarily in the inner workings of a person's mind and body. Charles W. Morris (Chicago and London: Univ. But my argument is that Brutus does reveal a good deal about his self when he chooses between the requirements OFhonor and those of friendship or Realpolitik. The Republic, Cassius argues, is based on equality ("When could they say [till now] that talked of Rome / That her wide walks encompassed but one man?" Brutus will direct the show and he, not Cassius, will define himself. of Chicago Press, 1962), p. 201. 39-46. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? In Tragic Alphabet (New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Brutus's second decision, how to murder Caesar, involves an opposition between the role demands of the politician and the requirements of the dominant strand in his identity, of the style that cuts across his various social roles-his honor. Brutus's name is powerful; his reputation as a man of honor, as a man of integrity and probity, is such that, "like richest alchemy," it can turn what would "appear offense" in others "to virtue and to worthiness" (1.iii. For me, a focus on Brutus is justified by the support it lends to Weimann's thesis that the testing of private qualities in the public arena, a testing "as a process in time," is, in fact, "the dramatic source of character". 158-60). Like Knight, the critics assembled in Twentieth-Centuly Interpretations of "Julius Caesar," ed. Press, 19831, p. 148). As she does so, she recognizes her developing self, for as Brutus observes in Julius Caesar, the play I focus on in this essay, "the eye sees not itself / But by reflection, by some other thingsn (I.ii.52-53). Choice thus intensifies a hero's relation to a part or parts of his or her identity; generally, choice defines a hero's identity more narrowly. This paper investigates the meta-ontological problem, what is the Julius Caesar objection? With Weimann, I say of course Brutus's commitment to honor is a personal commitment; it is also always already a public commitment. A person learns to judge herself by virtue of the judgments others make of her and by virtue of the standards others use to judge her. .down" ("Jonsonian Comedy and the Discovery of the Social Self," PMLA 99, 2 [March 19841: 179-93, 181). Smith found, 2. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Caesar was born into a very well-to-do and established family of the ruling class known as gens Julia, or of Iulus. That Brutus defines himself as a leader Shakespeare reveals only in the play's action. In the play's first scene, Shakespeare describes the threat that at least partly causes Brutus to avoid love, to "turn the trouble of my countenance / Merely upon myselfn(lines 38-39); conversing with Marullus, the tribune Flavius expresses sentiments that also charge Brutus and the conspiracy: Be hung with Caesar's trophies. Click EDIT to add/edit tags. In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, both Calpurnia and Portia are loving wives.Both adore their husbands. Personally, Brutus loves Caesar, but he admits here that his loyalty is to the Roman public. Here in Act I, Brutus responds to Cassius’s question of whether Brutus wants Caesar to be king or not. He writes that Juliw Caesar "has been described as the tragedy of Brutus, but this is just as much a distortion as to interpret Richard II as the tragedy of its nominally central figure. Yet the critics who have most forcefully pronounced the death of the individual, who have questioned most thoroughly the privilege accorded to interiority by Romantic and modernist criticism, often see only an inescapable prison in those social bands and social bonds. Brutus has fully chosen his public loyalty over any personal loyalties he may have had for Caesar. If Cassius holds up a mirror to Brutus, if Cassius invites him into the play, Brutus reveals immediately to Cassius that he is not one to be played with, not a pipe to be played on. Julius Caesar Test- quotes and quizizz 87 terms. Honigmann observes, "refer to 'gentle Brutus'; 'gentle' is one of Brutus's own favorite words; and in the end the word sticks. And both the personal commitment and the public commitment are rooted in the norms and values of the social group. Over the course of the play, those accepted ideas are presented in surprisingly ambiguous ways. Indeed, if Platt is correct, if "honor is the principle of the Republic," then one might argue that Shakespeare binds Brutus and the Republic through an association of each with honor. Both decisions, then, to murder and how to murder, spring above all from Brutus's concern with maintaining a clear sense of himself as honorable. Brutus directs the conspiracy not simply to preserve the Republic as the rhetoric of acts I and I1 suggests, but above all to preserve his name, his honor, his clear sense of himself as a Roman. Press of America, 1983), p. 190. As the orchard scene shows, Brutus directs the conspiracy, defines its nature, and indeed, one may suggest, uses it for his own purposes. Brutus's decision to murder Caesar is, as I have argued, a choice that resolves an opposition between the role demands of friendship and the role demands of citizenship. . Caesar puts the end of a well-run state above the means of government, and so, Brutus must oppose him. Caius Julius Caesar (100 bc - 44 bc) What is the psychological identity of Caius Julius Caesar , the most notorious Roman statesman and military leader of his time? Gaius Julius Caesar (100 v.C. I say there are 12/13 bloodlines and the 13 is the most powerful bloodline and remains the most hidden. In I.ii, Brutus meets Cassius more than half-way and, after offering him a broad hint about the nature of his vexatious passions (lines 79-80), Brutus almost commands Cassius to become that looking glass. The Julia family firmly believed that they were relatives of the gods. of Chicago Press, 1980). They mistake him, however, for the conspirator Cinna and move to assault him. "American Journal of Sociology 88, 6 (May 1983): 1280-87. Set honor in one eye and death i' th' other. Ultimately, it must make individually its own what others, who are of its own sort, have made of it.. . This bias informs not only the work of modernist critics but also the work of contemporary critics who have read at least some of the sociological literature, such as Philip Edwards, Lawrence Danson, Thomas Van Laan, and Deborah Montuori. [yet] no one in the play seems to see Brutus as a starry-eyed dreamer; indeed his reputation for good sense and proper action makes him trusted by e~eryone.~', Still, it is difficult to imagine a man could argue one minute that one should think of Caesar "as a serpent's egg, / Which, hatched, would as his kind grow mischievousn (II.i.32-33), but be unable in the next minute to apply the same logic to Antony. When Cassius' slave, Pindarus, mistakenly reports that Titinius has been Brutus admits openly, "I know no personal cause to spurn at him" (II.i.11, 19-21, 28-29). My essay also points out how foreign such an approach is to literary critics, who tend to see roles as unreal or fictitious, a mere mask (or set or succession of masks) hiding the true inner self. 291 likes. Press, 1982), p. 152. 154- 551). But Brutus's firm, terse response to Cassius's initial approach reveals his power to dominate. 24A focus on Brutus neglects the sense many critics have that Caesar is the play's hero or even that the play lacks a hero. Julius Caesar is a play preoccupied with questions of masculinity, with characters constantly examining their actions in light of their relationship to accepted ideas of manly virtue and strength. Pelican edn., gen. ed. ... identity of some nearby troops. SparkNotes is brought to you by Barnes & Noble. Rather, he reworked characters and events with which most of his audience would have been familiar. If the left is focused on race and identity, and we go with economic nationalism, we can crush the Democrats. After reading Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann's. pride [is a] mingling [of] the personal with the public," something to be avoided lest one come to a bad end, the play suggests that such a mingling is inevitable and indeed essential to the group and to the individual. In incident after incident he brushes love aside" (p. 94). Weimann's conception of character in Shakespeare challenges what until recently has been a deeply seated assumption that the aim of criticism is less to show "the very age and body of the time / his form and pressure" (HamletIII.ii.22-23)4 than to illumine the self as a secret and personal locus of human consciousness. That is, Brutus's honorable self cannot tolerate Caesar's attempts to subvert the legal status of the Republic-the framework in which he has lived free and created his identity, as have many Romans before him- and neither can it tolerate Cassius's attempts to "preserve" that framework by directing a slaughter of Caesar's friends … Rather than suggest that "one of the sources of. was 'n Romeinse militêre en politieke leier en een van die mees invloedryke figure in die klassieke geskiedenis. The audience can see how both Brutus and Caesar fail to honor their personal identities by making all decisions based on their public loyalties and image. Similarly, then, Shakespeare indicates the vulnerability of each by emphasizing the tenuousness of honor, as a concept and as a way of life. Some old- fashioned colleagues think that this short excerpt, it may seem. Jonathan Goldberg identifies such oppositions as peculiarly modern, suggesting that "today, public and private function as essentially opposing categories and . ? In an essay that has been widely ignored, Robert Weimann focuses attention on an aspect of Shakespeare's dramatic art that itself has been widely ignored-"the social, as distinct from the psychological, dimension of Shakespeare's characterization."' Espanol 18 terms. Brutus states that while he would rather not kill Caesar, Caesar’s death is the only way to ensure the well-being of Rome. 139-69; Anselm Strauss, Mirrors and Masks: The Search for Identity (Glencoe, IL: The Free Press, 1959); and Guy E. Swanson, "A Sociological Social Psychology? Brutus's decision to murder Caesar cleanly and to spare Antony results not from misjudgment but from clear judgment. In this scene of Act II, Brutus discusses the plot to kill Caesar with the other conspirators. . I argue that neo-Fregean and supervaluationist solutions to the Caesar objection fails because, . Significantly, in this play devices are ineffective that in later plays will successfully bring home to a hero that his choices are a casting away as well as a gathering in. As a result, a hero finds himself suddenly "at war" with his fellows and, more importantly, as Brutus, Hamlet, Lear, Othello, Macbeth, Antony, and Coriolanus know well, with himself. He seems to believe that "like richest alchemy" he can indeed change "offense" into virtue and worthiness (I.iii.157-60). Brutus insists that Antony be spared because honor demands the knife only for Caesar who alone has offended the Republic by trying to fly above "an ordinary pitch . . Brutus states that while he would rather not kill Caesar, Caesar’s death is the only way to ensure the well-being of Rome. Not only does the twice-announced death of Portia fail to move Brutus but Caesar's ghost comes and goes before Brutus knows what has hit him: "Why, I will see thee at Philippi then. To get beyond "the implacable code . . 30Honigmann, p. 45. edn. That is, Brutus's honorable self cannot tolerate Caesar's attempts to subvert the legal status of the Republic-the framework in which he has lived free and created his identity, as have many Romans before him- and neither can it tolerate Cassius's attempts to "preserve" that framework by directing a slaughter of Caesar's friends and associates. . As the play concludes, Brutus isolates himself from his fellows. He has assumed that all Romans, including those partial to Caesar, will take up "a place in the commonwealth" cheerfully and lend a hand "in the disposing of new dignities" (III.ii.42; III.i.178) when, in reality, the people would prefer-or they need-a king. Cassius plays the midwife to Brutus's thoughts, a midwife who would bring them into the clear daylight of action: And since you know you cannot see yourself. shaunaritchey. studies, see Ronald F.E. 15-36, 21. l5Frank Lentricchia, "Foucault's Legacy: A New Historicism?" Cassius, remember, first approaches Brutus by bluntly telling him, I have not from your eyes that gentleness, You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand, Brutus replies that, confused as he is by "passions of some differencen (line 40) and finding that he is "with himself at warn (line 46), he "Forgets the shows of love to other menn (line 47). "1° But as his research progressed, he concluded with great regret that "the human subject itself [seemed] remarkably unfree, the ideological product of the relations of power in a particular society."" Certainly none of these images captures the character of the man one sees in this play. "^' Yet the play suggests that for Brutus gentleness is more a requirement of role than a personal quality or a part of his self; Brutus seems to be gentle when the situation is appropriate, when a role demands that he be, as when he acts as friend or as lover. He also speaks of Caesar’s identity struggle between the harmless, good-natured man that he is and the dangerous man he could become with new power. Remove redundancies. . Fraser del Ida 10 terms. But if what one learns is above all social, it becomes (a part of) an individual's psychology, thereby empowering the individual to influence society.lg As George Herbert Mead explains, "the fact that all selves are constituted by or in terms of the social process . Certainly, I would overstate to say that Brutus is seduced before the seducer has begun his seduction. He was killed … 'For example it seems clear that rationality is as much a public attribute of the systematic relations of speech and action determined by social convention as it is a property of mind or of mental processes and constructionsn (Social Being: A Theory for Social Psychology [Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 19791, p. 285). Despite its somewhat marginalized position in literary criticism, this formulation has a long intellectual history and is well captured within sociology, in work drawing on that of the early twentieth-century American pragmatic philosophers-John Dewey, William James, and George Herbert Mead-who themselves reworked eighteenth-century Scottish moral philosophy.16, Like many poststructuralists, the pragmatists and the sociologists who followed them object to the binary oppositions made commonly enough in the modern period "between the outward and the inward, between what man pretends to be and what he really is, between what he says in the presence of others and what he thinks alone. 23142, 235. tags: eulogy, mark-antony. Iulus was the son of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who was believed to be a direct descendant of the goddess Venus. . Julius Caesar Birth Date c. July 12, 0100 BCE Death Date March 15, 0044 BCE Did You Know? Press, 19631, p. 62). Julius Caesar isn’t only a play about political intrigue, but about the internal and domestic struggles that sometimes churn underneath such intrigue. "Every tragic choice is both an affirmation of self and a suicide," as Robert B. Heilman has observed.33. Julius Caesar, Act 3, Scene 2. Rather, I think, he verbalizes and publicizes (and perhaps thereby validates) the "conceptions" Brutus had considered "only proper to myself' (I.ii.41). is not in the least incompatible with, or destructive of, the fact that every individual self has its own peculiar individuality, its own unique pattern. . . Julius caesar antony speech for essay about teddy bears. Julius Caesar. She writes on the uses of social science in literary criticism and on the issue of class in literary study and the profession, as well as on Shakespeare. What we must do is first acknowledge that in this. Mason, Alvin B. Kernan, Margreta de Grazia, Jonathan Bate, and Lee Patterson, a questioning that historicizes and politicizes the Romantic and modernist privileging of interiority in conceptions of the self,' we should be ready to take seriously Weimann's conception of identity as firmly bound to social relations and social institutions. 63. Gaius Julius Caesar, better known as Caligula, is an essential character of Dracula Untold.He is the first vampire to be recorded in history, perhaps the progenitor of the vampire race. Brutus goes to his grave impervious to the realities of the world in which he lived and created his identity, suggesting that "My heart doth joy that yet in all my life / I found no man but he was true to me" (V.v.34-35). In such reworkings, far from being cold and calculating, Brutus becomes an egoist; his pursuit of honor reveals not his disinterestedness but his self-interest.36. In Brutus's decisions is a rationale that if disastrous is nevertheless quite revealing of his identity. Publius Cimber does not speak or appear in William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. The smoothly operating self which had jelled over time is torn apart; its elements burst into opposition. As Naomi Conn Liebler writes, it reduces Brutus' character to that of a monolithic idealist, completely out of touch with reality, and surely not one with whom to mount a serious political effort. Theodore Mischel (Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1977), pp. Both women beg their husbands on bended knee to honor their wishes. Press, 1974), p. 55, Lawrence Danson explains that this is "the question . And drive away the vulgar from the streets. For a critical introduction to symbolic interactionism, see Bernard N. Meltzer, John W. Petras, and Larry T. Reynolds, Symbolic Interactionism: Genesis, Varieties, and Criticism (London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975). In tragedy, as I have suggested, a situation arises that makes personal demands upon the hero by bringing into opposition the components of his or her identity. And, he suggests, 'therein we have the key to his acts: he serves honour always in preference to love" (p. 71). Millions of books are just a click away on BN.com and through our FREE NOOK reading apps. In this scene of Act II, Brutus discusses the plot to kill Caesar with the other conspirators. %G. "20 Far from factoring out the individuality or uniqueness of the self, Mead insists both that the group is essential to the development of individuality and that developed individuality is essential to the development of the group. I distinguish epistemic, metaphysical and semantic versions. Given the recent questioning of the Romantic project by critics such as H.A. is something beyond and above the actual processes of life in ~ociety. Chapter One: A New Beginning. After this Cleopatra had her son Caesarion exiled to conceal his identity as the rightful successor to the crown and to insure … most frequently debated" by critics of the play. One could cite Brutus's position as praetor to suggest that this man is accustomed to making judgments and to deciding fates; one could cite Portia's respect for his word (II.i.255- 308) to argue that Brutus is not one to be disobeyed. Alfred Harbage (New York: Viking Press, 1969), and will appear parenthetically in the text. Shakespeare takes care to portray the private struggles of major characters as they agonize over their future actions and are even advised by their wives. The plot to kill Julius Caesar is first organized by some of his close friends, including his close friend and servant Brutus, whom Caesar deeply trusted and believed to be honorable. Hugh M. Richmond, however, argues that in this play Shakespeare's interest is not to explore the personal qualities and decisions of any given character but rather to explore a pattern of political success and failure. It seems safe to say, therefore, that when in discussing this play critics like Knight privilege "love" and personal relationships, they reveal less about the play and more about their own critical biases-the lingering effects of Romanticism or the influence of the new science of psychology. shaunaritchey. In Shakespeare's world, as in the sociologist's world, role-playing goes on all the time, and all the world is a stage-although what is enacted is no less serious for it. Brutus describes the nature of the "insurrectionn he faces when in reference to Caesar he declares to Cassius, "I would not [have him king]; yet I love him well" (I.ii.82). 45Richmond, p. 210. Weimann thinks an understanding of this dialectic is essential to our understanding of Shakespeare's art, for "it is only when these two points of reference-the self and the social-are seen as entering into a dynamic and unpredictable kind of relationship that the most original and far-reaching dimension in Shakespeare's conception of character-the dimension of growth and change-can be under~tood."~. For Shakespeare's plays certainly are more than passingly concerned with the social situation or institution within which the individual character is placed and must act, whether the battlefield, the state or court, or the family. That Brutus defines himself as honorable, an honor socially ratified and acknowledged, Shakespeare does not let the reader or the audience forget; such a theme is on many characters' tongues. . The Julius Caesar problem concerns cross-categorical identities such as “3 = Julius Caesar”. My colleagues Elizabeth Meese, David Lee Miller, and Harold Weber have provided the same and more. . ", Really it is Cassius who has had the idea for the plot; but he feels the need of a co-author-Brutus-to give the production the kind of prestige and styling that will make it a hit with the audience, the Roman populace. The tribunes, Marullus and Flavius, break up a gathering of Roman citizens who seek to celebrate Julius Caesars triumphant return from war. For example, Julius Caesar himself … Caesar's confiding to Antony at Lupercal indicates that he trusts Antony and looks upon him as a friend in return, perhaps even as a protégé. Brutus strengthens this declaration by saying that he fears losing his honor more than death. 73. That’s Steve Bannon, from his August 16 exit interview with Robert Kuttner in … Yet although Brutus "loves" and "is loved" as much as anyone in the play, the play suggests (and even Knight acknowledges) that Brutus holds aloof in his relationships with other people; he distances himself from these roles he must play.29 "Like Hamlet in his first scene," Honigmann observes, "Brutus shrinks from human contact; but whilst Hamlet welcomes Horatio and the Players and even Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Brutus, unless he is cornered, never expresses warmth of feeling when face to face with others.n80. Brutus's firm commitment to his carefully fashioned personal/public identity leads me to question criticisms of a character who, somewhat like Hamlet and "being thus benetted round with villainies" (V.ii.29), fails but fails by working to maintain his name of honor, a name that clearly holds meaning for Brutus because it merges the public and the private, because it is a personal quality defined or achieved within a public or social context. English 2 Julius Caesar Act 3 & 4 Quiz Review 36 terms. finds its foci in his role as a Roman citizen, with its notions of equality and freedom; in his role as praetor urbanus, one of the chief magistrates at Rome; and in his personal relationships, his roles as husband and friend. The name of honor insists that means be appropriate, that is, justly related, to ends, and as important. and the slippery signifier" requires us to take seriously Weimann's sense that personal autonomy and personal identity are inseparable from social relations and institutions. . Having sacrificed Caesar to his self, to his honor, Brutus finds no more threats in the actions of men: His self is beyond reproach and perhaps beyond reach. bce , Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bce , Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce ), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce , and dictator (46–44 bce ), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he … 60n this issue see Jonathan Bate, Shakespearean Constitutions: Politics, Theatre, Criticism, 1730-1830 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989) and Gary Taylor, Reinventing Shakespeare: A Cultural History from the Restoration to the Present (New York: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1989). 32Michael Platt, Rome and Romans According to Shakespeare, rev. Sometimes, it is easy for one to assess the degree of another's involvement in a role; at other times it is not so easy, and one may find oneself, as Othello does, "as tenderly . He does not "bungle" his attempt to save the Republic because of idealism or simplicity, but because, the play reveals, he will not choose to lose this aspect of self in any effort-not for friendship, not for citizenship, not even for the Republic.''. All these critics share my sense that Brutus acts to maintain his sense of himself as honorable. The problem with such a line of argument is that it describes a well-intentioned man acting to save his country who fails because of idealism or simplicity or both. Rather than an inescapable prison, rather than what must be denied, social relations are the ground on which identity is formed; social relations authorize one's identity. In short, Montrose urges us to theorize a relationship between subjects and social structures less "paranoidn-to borrow Frank Lentricchia's term15-than those theorized so far. The Social Const7zlction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (Garden City, NY: Anchor-Doubleday Books, 1967), Danson, for example, maintains that the social self is one that winds its way through a "dizzyingly endless process . The skillful hands of contemporary master sculptors have provided us with some marvellously crafted … Julius Caesar Act 4 17 terms. "Who is it," Lear wonders, "that can tell me who I am?" In Act II, Brutus continues to reveal his inner struggle between his personal feelings for Caesar and his feelings towards protecting his public. Sharon O'Dair is Assistant Professor of English at the University of Alabama. In other words, Brutus accepts the necessity to check his powerful friend only when Caesar's power strains the legal bounds of the Republic, only when Caesar's pursuit of power becomes a matter of honor that is both personal and public. Brutus states that while he would rather not kill Caesar, Caesar’s death is the only way to ensure the well-being of Rome. Richard C. Trexler (Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1985), pp. Sometimes, since it expresses a part of self nicely, one embraces a part in the play society scripts, and plays that role sincerely and with vigor. 'Robert Weimann, 'Society and the Individual in Shakespeare's Conception of Character," ShS 34 (1981): 23-31, 23. That work such as Danson's is a misreading of sociology, I have argued elsewhere ("Freeloading Off the Social Sciences," P&L 15, 2 [October 19911: 260-67); that Montuori's is a misreading of Greenblatt is implied in Greenblatt's recent book, Learning to Curse (New York: Routledge, 1990). . of Washington Press, 1968), pp. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedere, caes-). . 105-23, 106. According to this view, letting Antony off the hook is either the sad, ironic result of Brutus's idealism or the sad, likely result of his simplicity, an inability to keep up with or to judge the times. After all, Lear is not long on the heath, for he must soon gather what he can of his racked self to plunge again into what is the situation of human beings: not alone and not separate, Lear-like us-is related in many ways to many other people and even is, as he sees, responsible for them (III.iv.28-36). Weimann posits a dialectical and intimate relationship between identity and social relations: "merely to confront the idea of personal autonomy with the experience of social relations is not good enough as a definition of character. Honor transforms all: Antony is sure to be a good friend and even Cassius is not Cassius in Brutus's eyes. Winning the war, Caesar became Roman dictator for life. 0 that we then could come by Caesar's spirit. IsBruce Wilshire, Role Playing and Identity: The Limits of Theatre as Metaphor (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Other characters, E.A.J. The notions of sortal and category are introduced. On the use of symbolic interactionism in Renaissance. "~ may have wished to, For whatever reasons-some uphold the requirements of science, and some, as Eagleton suggests, wished to criticize the alienation they saw attached to industrial capitalism, and still others, as Jonathan Bate and Gary Taylor ~uggest,~. He urges us to see subjects as both creatures and creators of their societies, as both determined by and determiners of the social structures around them. In a critical milieu that privileged (and perhaps still privileges) interiority and the emotions in understandings of character, that seemed (and seems) to take for granted "that there is a distinction between a Shakespearian person and the public or political position he chooses or is forced into," it is perhaps not surprising that Brutus should be criticized for failing to choose love or friendship over what Knight calls "abstract honor. Always Cassius's "Good reasons must of force give place to bettern-those of Brutus (IV.iii.203). Julius Caesar is a powerful Roman political and military leader who gets stabbed in the back (and... Brutus. Self-definition is not a one-way street, either biologically or socially, but rather depends on interaction and on the interpretative, solidifying responses of others to one's acts. In such a situation, the hero's choices reinforce one or more parts of that identity, and hence those choices deny other parts of it. The smoothly operating self Brutus had established, the self that will face the test of disl~cation,~~. '"~, Thus although Shakespeare allows many of his characters-heroes and villains alike-to express some sense of separation from roles, from public activity, from definition by the group, he defines character as occurring and developing within and because of a context of others. . So do you too, where you perceive them thick. Mason, "Tragic Bonds," CQ 14, 1 (Winter 1985): 1-19; Alvin B. Kernan, "The Social Construction of Literature," KR 7, 4 (Fall 1985): 3146; Margreta de Grazia, "The Motive for Interiority: Shakespeare's Sonnets and Hamlet," Style 23, 3 (Fall 1989): 43044; Bate; and Lee Patterson, 'On the Margin: Postmodernism, Ironic History, and Medieval Studies," Speculum 65, 1 (January 1990): 87-108. 'Xertainly, too, Brutus's response to news of Portia's death indicates that some distance and formality characterize their relationship. Brutus reveals the conflict he faces between his public and private identities. . led by th'nose / As asses are" (I.iii.395-96).22, Sometimes circumstances require a person to lay his self on the line, and in the theater, especially Shakespeare's theater, "a dramatic personality is wasted until his private qualities are successfully (or otherwise) tested in public," as Weimann suggests.23 In Shakespeare's tragedies, one might argue, the self s coherency. In this scene, which is characterized as much by what is left unsaid as by the vigor of what is said, Brutus anticipates Cassius's proposal and seems to see in it a means for his own self-definition: But wherefore do you hold me here so long? "Louis Montrose, "Professing the Renaissance: The Poetics and Politics of Culture," The New Historicism, ed. "I would like to thank an anonymous reviewer at SEL for suggestions helpful in the revision of this essay. In playing these social roles, in performing the duties and in exercising the rights associated with them, Brutus has achieved the "name" of honor. Given Cassius's repeated and direct warnings, I am led to conclude that Brutus spares Antony as it were with his eyes open; aware of the risks, he seems to choose to think of him as "but a limb of Caesar.". seems, strikes the mark when he suggests that Brutus wins 'less than total sympathy" because he focuses 'upon the loser not the loss" in first announcing her death (p. 50). Spanish test 64 terms. At other times, one only goes through the motions in a role society provides, and thus distances oneself from it, since it expresses a part of self only poorly. Rather, as Brutus notes tellingly, "We all stand up against the spirit of Caesar" (II.i.167), a man who "would be crowned" (II.i.12). Brutus realizes that at bottom Cassius's plan does not differ from Caesar's. H. Aram Veeser (New York: Routledge, 1989), pp. He continues to point out his practical "fears" about Antony even to the moment when the conspirators first encounter him after the murder of Caesar (III.i.143-4'7). . Rather than retrace the course of history as Mason suggests, critics have built upon Romantic and modernist alienation from social institutions; now even the spaces in the mind, in art, in the academy, spaces carefully posited in distinction to those created by life in society, offer no real solace or freedom. Julius Caesar opens with a scene of class conflict, the plebeians versus the tribunes. 'S wing, who was believed to be a good friend and Cassius! A well-run state above the view of men '' ( p. 94 ) is more than I fear death ''... For honour which had jelled over time is torn apart ; its elements burst into opposition?. The revision of this essay `` who is so tested their leader not or... 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