(5). Dynamic Programming 3. I was the 2nd presenter in line to have a go on the Tech Talk session series at Cinergix. (b) Maximization of the system reliability subject to nonlinear constraints. . 1. results, while using only 0.77%of the spanning trees contained Static models assume that a failure does not result in the occurrence of other faults. Copyright © 2008-2020 Cinergix Pty. reliability of the system with minimum cost under the constraints imposed on the development of a system. based on fully connected networks that contain up to 2.3×109 These are assessed by considering the survey’s reliability and validity. Define subproblems 2. al, Monte Carlo Simulation in (Yeh, et. Dynamic Programming 4. Since reliability is always a major issue in the network design, the problem is practical for critical applications requiring minimized cost. The paper proves that the problem of optimally ordering the spanning trees is NP-complete, and proposes three greedy heuristics to generate and order only spanning trees of the network. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Appr, Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, International Journal of Computational Intelligen, 266. https://doi.org/10.1142/s146902680500160x, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.swevo.2017.07.010. The numerical analysis for various scales of problems shows that the proposed approach has a higher search capability that improve quality of solution and enhanced rate of convergence. In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA). ions on 25 networks with various sizes with up, l, 1994). Reliability in software can be defined as “the probability of a computer program performing its intended functions, without any failures for a specified time under a specified environment”. Check out my personal blog Rumbling Lankan where I write about online marketing stuff. Simulations based on fully connected networks that contain up to spanning trees show the merits of using the ordering methods and the effectiveness of our algorithm vis-à-vis to four existing state-of-the-art techniques. Each heuristic allows DPCR-ST to enumerate STX al, 1994) to approximately, The following two equations describe the NTD-RC pr. Dynamic Programming is an algorithmic paradigm that solves a given complex problem by breaking it into subproblems and stores the results of subproblems to avoid computing the same results again. s significantly reduces the time complexity. Extensive simulations using hundreds of benchmark networks that contain up to $1.899^{102}$ spanning trees show the merits of using the sorting method, and the effectiveness of our algorithms. The paper shows that DPA-1 is optimal if the spanning trees are optimally ordered. heuristics to generate and order only k spanning trees of the Furthermore, the non-optimal results are only up to 3.4% off from optimal for the simulated examples. problem is practical for critical applications requiring I will try to help you in understanding how to solve problems using DP. The paper shows that our DPCR-ST approach always provides a feasible solution, and produces an optimal topology given an optimal order of spanning trees. Quality Assurance is important in each and every aspect as to get better and satisfactory product as the end, Quality assurance is like the insurance of your product. Further, for a typical 2 100 grid network that contains up to spanning t- ees, DPCR-ST approach requires only spanning trees to generate a topology with a reliability no larger than 5.05% off from optimal. Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method and a computer programming method. In this tutorial we will be learning about 0 1 Knapsack problem. While it would be impossible to delve into the whole spectrum of these activities in this post alone, I will mention a few so that you get the gist of what  these activities entail. to solve NTD-CR (DPCR-ST), to generate the topology using a selected sequence of spanning trees of the network, . Outline Dynamic Programming 1-dimensional DP 2-dimensional DP Interval DP This paper formulates a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to solve the NTD-CR problem. https://doi.org/10.1109/apcc.2013.6766047, Konak, A. Two important qualities of surveys, as with all measurement instruments, are consistency and accuracy. Each heuristic allows DPCR-P to enumerate the selected paths using only k paths, which improves the time complexity while producing near optimal topology. • “It is easier to make a correct program Reliability R (t), is the probability that a device or an item performs its function adequately over the time interval (0,t). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84800-131-2_32, (1), 256-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0377-2217(99)00255-6, (1), 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1109/24.589921, (3), 179-188. https://doi.org/10.1109/4235.661548, Design with Minimal Cost Subject to Network, Journal of Advances in Computer Networks, 1, A Practical Algorithm for Reliable Communication, International Journal of Performability Engineering, e genetic algorithm approach to th91e reliability, International Journal of Network Management, Proceedings of the International Multiconference on Computer Science and Information. This paper first formulates a Dynamic Programming (DP) scheme to solve the problem. We propose two different greedy heuristics to generate and order only k≤n paths, where n is the total number of paths in the network. Steps for Solving DP Problems 1. network. To avoid these redundant computations, we use dynamic programming based approach. spanning trees show the merits of ordering methods and the Software system is used in everywhere on our daily lives. I hope this rather techy blog post acts as a good focal point when it comes to assessing your site or app with regard to reliability. The paper shows that our DPCR-ST approach always provides a feasible solution, and produces an optimal topology given an optimal order of spanning trees. al, 2008; sequentially only up to |E| links to solve the problem, and thu. In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series.. So there you have it. In the following example we will see how a loop is used to improve code efficiency. The paper describes a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to solve the NTD-CR problem, and proposes a DP approach, called Dynamic Programming Algorithm to solve NTD-CR (DPCR-ST), to generate the topology using a selected sequence of spanning trees of the network, . Our proposed DPA is able to generate 92% optimal results on the networks using only 6% to 11% of the (s, t) paths for large networks. Like divide-and-conquer method, Dynamic Programming solves problems by combining the solutions of subproblems. Reliability metrics are units of measure for system reliability. Which distributes the data among a determined number of threads, starting from one thread (sequential), two, four and eight threads (in parallel). NTD-CR, to design a minimal-cost communication network If a problem has overlapping subproblems, then we can improve on a recursi… Achieving reliability will give you benefits in the areas of: Customer Satisfaction – unreliable product will negatively affect customer satisfaction severely. As System-on-chip (SOC) developers continue to look for ways to reduce cost and time to market, it is important to consider the different non-volatile memory (NVM) options that add flexibility to their products. DPA-2 is able to generate 85% optimal results, while using only a small number of $k$ spanning trees, and up to 16.83 CPU seconds. 1. reliability is always a major issue in the network design, the As far as this topic is concerned you need to take into consideration Static Code Metrics (which gives information at the code level) and Dynamic Metrics (which provides information on the actual runtime). Extensive simulations using benchmark networks with various sizes show the merits of path-orders, and the effectiveness and advantage of our DPA vis-à-vis to three existing techniques. min. Reliable products will show that although the initial cost of their product might be higher, the overall lifetime cost is lower than a competitor’s because their product requires fewer repairs or less maintenance. Simulations minimized cost. For web applications such as Creately, reliability is an important Quality Factor that needs to be considered. The paper formulates a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to solve NTD-CR problem. Other activities that need to be considered would be load testing to determine the system’s behavior under both normal and anticipated peak load conditions and to also perform regression testing after additions or modifications are done to ensure that the existing functionality remains the same. ive optimization problem, note that our NTD-RC, DPA-1’s time efficiency while producing, ) is the maximum. It’s fine if you don’t understand what “optimal substructure” and “overlapping sub-problems” are (that’s an article for another day). We start by computing edit distance for smaller sub-problems and use the results of these smaller sub-problems to compute results for sub-sequent larger problems. In contrast, if the cost of G without, ., it is a feasible solution, in Eq. This thesis addresses four reliable network topology design problems that consider reliability, cost, and/or bandwidth performance metrics. aluator for distributed computer networks. The effect of control parameters of MOABC is investigated. (1), 199-213. https://doi.org/10.1109/71.89065, (3), 551-562. https://doi.org/10.1109/tr.2010.2055924, topological optimization of computer networks. 2, is obtained by d, dynamic programming method, called Algo-DP, optimize its results. System reliability is measured by counting the number of operational failures and relating these to demands made on the system at the time of failure. Simulations based on fully connected networks that contain up to spanning trees show the merits of using the ordering methods and the effectiveness of our algorithm vis-à-vis to four existing state-of-the-art techniques. Wherever we see a recursive solution that has repeated calls for same inputs, we can optimize it using Dynamic Programming. On performing all the cost benefit analysis, it occurs that if reliability is maintained right from the beginning lot of cost could be saved. Dynamic Programming 11 Dynamic programming is an optimization approach that transforms a complex problem into a sequence of simpler problems; its essential characteristic is the multistage nature of the optimization procedure. DP approach, called DPCR-P is able to generate 91% optimal results on the networks using only 8.89% to 27.5% of all paths in the networks. When it comes to error prevention activities, there are many things that need to be undertaken in order for you to achieve reliability. Importance Of Modularity In Programming In modular programming, you can reuse your code like Lego blocks. DP approach, called DPCR-P, generates the topology using a selected set of paths of the network. Dynamic programming requires an optimal substructure and overlapping sub-problems, both of which are present in the 0–1 knapsack problem, as we shall see. All rights reserved. Software engineer turned tech evangelist. Each heuristic allows DPCR-P to enumerate the selected paths using only k paths, which improves the time complexity while producing near optimal topology. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Our DPCR-ST approach is able to generate 81.5% optimal results, while using only 0.77% of the spanning trees contained in networks. Overlapping subproblems:When a recursive algorithm would visit the same subproblems repeatedly, then a problem has overlapping subproblems. This paper addresses an NP-hard problem, refered to as Network Topology Design with minimum Cost subject to a Reliability constraint (NTD-CR), to design a minimal-cost communication network topology that satisfies a pre-defined reliability constraint. The device under consideration may be an entire System [2]. Essentially, it just means a particular flavor of problems that allow us to reuse previous solutions to smaller problems in order to calculate a solution to the current proble… Because cost is always a major focus in network design, this problem is practical for critical applications requiring maximized reliability. Each heuristic allows the DPCR-ST approach to generate using only spanning trees, which improves the time complexity while producing a near optimal topology. Ltd. All rights reserved. We propose two different greedy heuristics to generate and order only k≤n paths, where n is the total number of paths in the network. In my spare time I love to read and travel. Lines 19 to 22, the total cost of the union of links in network X=(X-L[, propose using the Monte Carlo Simulation (Yeh, et. ty under cost constraint. This paper addresses an NP-hard problem to design a network topology with maximum all-terminal reliability subject to a cost constraint, given the locations of the various computer centers (nodes), their connecting links, each link's reliability and cost, and the maximum budget cost to install the links. Since cost is a major issue in NT design, NTD-RC is applicable for critical applications requiring maximized reliability. POFOD = 0.001 (For one in every 1000 requests the service fails per time unit), ROCOF = 0.02 (Two failures for each 100 operational time units of operation), Tech Talks: Part 2 ~ Understanding Usability, Tech Talks: Part 1 ~ Understanding Usability, Top 10 Tips that will Increase Visitors to your Site, How to Effectively Manage Your Time While Working Remotely, How to Write a Business Project Proposal that Gets Approved, Building Culture While Staying Remote: How to Conduct Virtual Icebreakers, The Quick Guide to Running Productive Retrospectives Remotely, The Complete Guide to Virtual Strategic Planning, How to Conduct Remote Performance Reviews: A Complete Guide, How to Make Your Online Presentation More Engaging, How to Improve Team Communication with Visual Collaboration. 1998., http://swreflections.blogspot.com/2009/08/lessons-in-software-reliability.html, http://www.tectrends.com/tectrends/article/00172844.html, http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Enterprise-Applications/Measuring-SAAS-Reliability/. Then, it describes a DP approach, called DPA, to generate the topology using all (s, t) paths in the network. Ltd 2020 | All rights reserved. life-cycle costs of the system, and reliability based design must be carried out if the system is to achieve its desired performance. Four heuristic dynamic programming approaches are proposed, and 10 order criteria are used to improve their optimality and time efficiency. The paper proposes five-link ordering criteria to improve the performance of Algo-DP. This paper presents a goal programming-based multi-objective artificial bee colony optimization (MOABC) algorithm to solve the problem of topological design of distributed local area networks (DLANs). We propose a self-controlled genetic algorithm (scGA) to all-terminal network reliability problem. However, both (Shao, et. (4), e, ], and the reliability of its resulting graph, Rel[, ]=0.65. The idea is to simply store the results of subproblems, so that we do not have to … Maximization of the system reliability subject to linear constraints. Dynamic Programming is mainly an optimization over plain recursion. (2) that form G. , by selectively removing links in E while satisfying Eq. Thus high reliability is a mandatory requirement for customer satisfaction. Reliability is one of the most important attributes of performance in arriving at the optimal design of a system since it Goal programming (GP) is incorporated to aggregate the multiple design objectives into a single objective function. I cannot but drive home the fact that this is certainly an aspect that can be regarded as being one of the best cornerstones when it comes to building a great site or app. effectiveness of our algorithm vis-à-vis four existing Introduction . & Smith, E. (1999). Introduction to 0-1 Knapsack Problem. Further, its non-optimal results are no more than 0.77% off that of optimal. Generally, if something or someone is described as being “reliable” it gives an idea of being trustworthy and dependable. Our DPCR-ST approach is able to generate 81.5% optimal results, while using only 0.77% of the spanning trees contained in networks. There are a number of different statistics we can use to estimate reliability and … An important part of given problems can be solved with the help of dynamic programming (DP for short). The paper formulates a In this method, we use bottom up approach to compute the edit distance between str1 and str2. Keywords: software architecture, software reliability, Reliability Allocation, Reliability Estimation, Dynamic Programming . all-terminal reliability given a cost constraint. license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). I decided to make the focus of the presentation to center on a QA Quality Factor which is known as “Reliability”. Summary: In this tutorial, we will learn What is 0-1 Knapsack Problem and how to solve the 0/1 Knapsack Problem using Dynamic Programming. Simulations on hundreds of networks show the merits of the proposed methods. Further, the paper describes an alternative DP algorithm, called DPA-2, that uses only $k$ spanning trees ($kleq n$, where $n=vert{rm ST}_{G}vert$ ) sorted in increasing weight and lexicographic order to improve the time efficiency of DPA-1 while producing similar results. Moreover, you have to follow proper coding standards, perform regular code reviews for correctness & safety and perform unit testing to independently test the modules. Measurements to maximize reliability, specifically measures that support the first two activities. For example, it was observed in RBDs and Analytical System Reliabilitythat the least reliable component in a series system has the biggest effect on the system reliability. dynamic programming, network optimization, network reliability, and/or required reliability. We found that Algo-DP generates NT with the same or better 2-terminal reliability measure (with up to 4.3% improvement) on 92% of the network topologies. This paper presents a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to solve the problem. Further, the path-orders allow DPA to generate only k=1 paths dynamically from the graph model of the network and stops if a path inclusion leads to an insignificant addition in the resulting topology's reliability. Cost is a major issue in the network design, and thus the problem is applicable for networks requiring maximized reliability. Reliability and Validity. On Maximizing Reliability of Network T opolo gy Design Using a Practical Dynamic Programming Approach Basima Elshqeirat 1 , Sieteng Soh 2 , Suresh Rai 3 & Saher Manaseer 1 Further, its non-optimal results are no more than 10.97% off from optimal. Variation in system reliability = 5.56%. Reliability models can be divided into static and dynamic ones. Repeat Business – Customers will return to a website that is reliable & has a positive impact on future business, Reputation – When a product is reliable the company will have a favorable reputation, Competitive Advantage – Companies can publish their predicted reliability numbers to help gain an advantage over their competition who either does not publish their numbers or has lower numbers, Warranty Costs – Reliable products will fail less frequently during the warranty period. Got any queries, comments or complaints, please do go ahead and let us know. Extensive simulations using benchmark networks with various sizes show the merits of path-orders, and the effectiveness of our approach. Following are the most important Dynamic Programming problems asked in … Five different path-orders are proposed to improve the effectiveness of DPA. Further, for a typical 2 100 grid network that contains up to spanning t- ees, DPCR-ST approach requires only spanning trees to generate a topology with a reliability no larger than 5.05% off from optimal. Our simulations on 28 topologies show the, simulations show that it finds better results as compared to th, Indonesia. Since … This paper formulates a dynamic. min using only k spanning trees, which improves the time Reliability which is a time-bound component implies successful operation over a certain period of time. The optimization problems include one or two objectives and one constraint, each of which is known NP-hard. All problems consider all-terminal and/or two-terminal reliability measures. Each element DP[, two potential reliability values. A modified version of MOABC, named as evolutionary multi-objective ABC (EMOABC) is also proposed which incorporates the characteristics of simulated evolution (SE) algorithm for improved local search. 2) Knowing how to calculate reliability is important, but knowing how to achieve reliability is equally, if not more, important. (1), 1303-1319. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-2714(93)90132-i, Springer, London. directly and significantly influences the system’s performance and its life cycle costs. Over the last few years, the NVM market has been flooded with new solutions. Each heuristic allows the DPCR-ST approach to generate using only spanning trees, which improves the time complexity while producing a near optimal topology. Dynamic Programming works when a problem has the following features:- 1. If we imagine that r1 is the reliability of the device. There are two aspects that need to be considered here – Software Testing & Software Inspection. Recognize and solve the base cases Each step is very important! In this dynamic programming problem we have n items each with an associated weight and value (benefit or profit). Further, they proposed an alternative DP algor, general, a network contains an exponential number of (, original network with no link deletion. Furthermore, Algo-DP shows that it is computationally more efficient compared to the recent existing approach. In this case, if the reliability of the system is to be improved, then the efforts can best be concentrated on improving the reliability of that component first. Furthermore, a comparative analysis is also done with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), Pareto-dominance particle swarm optimization (PDPSO) algorithm and two recent variants of decomposition based multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, namely, MOEA/D-1 and MOEA/D-2. Poor reliability would greatly increase This paper addresses an NP-complete problem, called NTD-CR, to design a minimal-cost communication network topology that satisfies a pre-defined two terminal reliability constraint, given the locations of the various computer centers (nodes), their connecting links, each link's reliability and cost, and the required reliability for the network to operate. The effects of link orders on the performance of Algo-DP, doi:10.5539/mas.v12n12p163 URL: https://doi.org/10.5539/mas.v, requiring maximized reliability. Dynamic Programming is also used in optimization problems. This paper first formulates a Dynamic Programming (DP) scheme to solve the problem. Moreover, Dynamic Programming algorithm solves each sub-problem just once and then saves its answer in a table, thereby avoiding the work of re-computing the answer every time. We define a solution or NT, ]=0. This paper considers, e, the aim is to produce a network topology wit, , (Abo ElFotoh & Al-Sumait, 2001; Gen, 2006; Konak. & Smith, 2005; Atiqullah & Rao, 1993; Papagianni, et. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering. Extensive simulations using benchmark networks with various sizes show the merits of path-orders, and the effectiveness of our approach. One of the Dynamic Metric examples would be Failure Rate Data such as: When talking about problem reports, it is imperative that you use error logs & access logs to determine the following: – Date of occurrence, nature of failures, consequences. Reliability design problem. Introduction . importance of how to select reliability and cost of each component in architecture-based software. This paper addresses an NP-complete problem of designing a network topology (NT) with the maximum 2-terminal reliability (R) subject to a cost constraint (C). A DP approach, called Algo-DP, finds the set of links to be deleted from the original network to obtain an optimal NT. Once the reliability of a system has been determined, engineers are often faced with the task of identifying the least reliable component(s) in the system in order to improve the design. Standardization of Simulation Scenario Setup for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International, Dynamic Programming for Minimal Cost Topology with Reliability Constraint, A Multi-objective Evolutionary Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Optimizing Network Topology Design, Optimizing reliable network topology design using dynamic programming, A practical algorithm for reliable network topology design, Topology Design with Minimal Cost Subject to Network Reliability Constraint, Dynamic programming for minimal cost topology with two terminal reliability constraint, A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Reliable Network Design, A Self-controlled Genetic Algorithm for Reliable Communication Network Design, Empirical Analysis Measuring the Degree of Parallelism of Parallel Merge Sort, On Minimizing Cost of Reliable Network Topological Design using a Practical DP Approach. For web applications such as Creately, reliability is an important Quality Factor that needs to be considered. This paper formulates a dynami. Furthermore, the non-optimal results are only up to 3.4% off from optimal for the simulated examples. If a problem has optimal substructure, then we can recursively define an optimal solution. In addition, topology design which was formulated as a discrete multi-object, propose a DP approach, called DPA, to generate the topology, optimal results. Efficiency can be achieved by the use of loops, arrays, proper use of boolean functions, for example. 2. Due to the massive number of simulation-based experiments in MANETs, This project aims to prune unwanted simulation scenarios. Write down the recurrence that relates subproblems 3. te the task, it assigns the given data to a number of processors and compare between them, in terms of time taken to complete the task. 02 Dynamic programming To optimize the design by using dynamic programming the same case problem discussed in the preceding chapter has been considered by taking the values of component reliabilities (r j), the number of … As described in Section 4.1, we, is a set of selected links in Eq. using Dynamic Programming. We’ll be solving this problem with dynamic programming. © Cinergix Pvt. programming (DP) scheme to solve the NTD-CR problem. Fault detection and removal activities. links, link failure rate and installation cost. Submitted by Shivangi Jain, on August 21, 2018 . Note that the reliability of the topology after deletin, For example, criterion LO2 generates links (, first. This will lower the repair & replacements costs & refunds, Cost Analysis – Reliability data can be used for cost analysis. someone can make out letters, text is considered readable. Reliability design D 0 D 1 D 2 … D n-1 D 0 D 0 D D 1 D 1 … D 0 D 2 D n-1 2 D n-1 2 2 D D n-1 2 Multiple devices are used at each stage. 3) Reliability practices must begin early in the design process and must be well integrated into the overall product development cycle. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. this paper focuses on analyzing the performance of sorting in parallel strictly using resources. existing approach in (Elshqeirat, et. complexity while producing near optimal topology. critical applications requiring maximized reliability. dynamic programming (DP) scheme to solve NTD-CR problem. Because cost is always a major focus in network design, this problem is practical for, This paper addresses an NP-hard problem, refered to as Network Topology Design with minimum Cost subject to a Reliability constraint (NTD-CR), to design a minimal-cost communication network topology that satisfies a pre-defined reliability constraint. A DP approach, called DPA-1, generates the topology using all spanning trees of the network $({rm ST}_{G})$. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. Results indicate Algo-DP demonstrated better performance than other existing algorithm. parallel and distributed computing and systems (PDCS-2002), Cambridge. Dynamic programming 1 Dynamic programming In mathematics and computer science, dynamic programming is a method for solving complex problems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems. A DP approach, called DPA-1, generates the topology using all spanning trees of the network $({rm ST}_{G})$. Dynamic reliability, instead, assumes that some failures, so-called primary failures, promote the emergence of secondary and tertiary faults, with a cascading effect. state-of-the-art techniques; DPCR-ST produces 81.5% optimal in network. Further, its non-optimal results are no more than 10.97% off from optimal. DPA-2 is able to generate 85% optimal results, while using only a small number of $k$ spanning trees, and up to 16.83 CPU seconds. Genetic algorithms are commonly used to generate high-quality solutions to optimization and search problems by relying on biologically inspired operators such as mutation, crossover and selection. The Cost of Reliability • In general, reliable systems take the slow, steady route: – trusted implementation techniques – few uses of short-cuts, sneak paths, tricks – use of redundancy, run-time checks, type-safe pointers • Users value reliability highly. Results indicate that EMOABC demonstrated superior performance than all the other algorithms. To achieve reliability in software, activities can be followed in the areas of: 3. The paper describes a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to solve the NTD-CR problem, and proposes a DP approach, called Dynamic Programming Algorithm, This paper addresses an NP-complete problem, called NTD-CR, to design a minimal-cost communication network topology that satisfies a pre-defined two terminal reliability constraint, given the locations of the various computer centers (nodes), their connecting links, each link's reliability and cost, and the required reliability for the network to operate. Extensive simulations using hundreds of benchmark networks that contain up to $1.899^{102}$ spanning trees show the merits of using the sorting method, and the effectiveness of our algorithms. The paper shows that DPA-1 is optimal if the spanning trees are optimally ordered. Then the reliability of the function can be given by πr1. We propose three greedy Finally, for a 2×100 grid network that contains 299 paths, DPA requires only up to k=987 paths to generate topology with cost 99% of the total cost and reliability 99.35% of that of the original network. DPCR-P is able to generate 91% optimal results on the networks using only 8.89% to 27.5% of all paths in the networks. Examples for Static Code Metrics would be Source Lines of Code (SLOC) of the program, Number of Modules & Go To Statements & Number of Classes & Weighted Methods per Class (WMC). DP approach, called DPCR-P, generates the topology using a selected set of paths of the network. The method was developed by Richard Bellman in the 1950s and has found applications in numerous fields, from aerospace engineering to economics.. This means rather than executing an algorithm in parallel and relying on the software used to comple, This paper addresses an NP-hard problem to design a network topology with maximum all-terminal reliability subject to a cost constraint, given the locations of the various computer centers (nodes), their connecting links, each link's reliability and cost, and the maximum budget cost to install the links. • Dynamic programming is also used in: – Production control – Markov models of systems – Financial portfolio management (risk management) – Multi player game solutions! In life data analysis and accelerated life testing data analysis, as well as other testing activities, one of the primary objectives is to obtain a life distribution that describes the times-to-failure of a component, subassembly, assembly or system. Simulation results on different benchmark networks of various sizes are used to compare Algo-DP with existing techniques in the literature and show the merits of using the sorting methods, and the effectiveness of our algorithm. So, let’s take a look at DfR fundamentals and how companies employ it to their best advantage. That does not mean, though, that words are necessarily easy to read or comprehend; they are just decipherable Note: The method described here for finding the n th Fibonacci number using dynamic programming runs in O(n) time. More specifically, given the locations of the various computer centers (nodes), their connecting links, each link’s reliability and cost, and the maximum budget cost to install the links, the NT design problem, called NTD-RC, aims to find an NT that has the maximum reliability with cost within the budget. Comparison of EMOABC with MOABC and the standard ABC (SABC) shows better performance of EMOABC. In both contexts it refers to simplifying a complicated problem by breaking it down into simpler sub-problems in a recursive manner. The problem complexity is further magnified by the presence of multiple design objectives and numerous design constraints. This paper considers an optimization of a communication network expansion with a reliability constraint. The article is based on examples, because a raw theory is very hard to understand. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. An optimal reliability design is one in which all possible means available to a designer have been explored to enhance the topology that satisfies a pre-defined reliability constraint. This paper addresses an NP-hard problem, called IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering. This paper formulates a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to help solve NTD-RC. Reliability in software can be defined as “the probability of a computer program performing its intended functions, without any failures for a specified time under a specified environment”. References: Software Metrics and Reliability by Linda Rosenberg, Ted Hammer, and Jack Shaw. Monitors determine There is still a better method to find F(n), when n become as large as 10 18 ( as F(n) can be very huge, all we want is to find the F(N)%MOD , for a given MOD ). Ideally, you need to have requirements that should clearly & accurately specify the functionality of the final product. This paper addresses an NP-hard problem of designing a network topology with maximum (s, t) reliability subject to given constraints, such as the computer centers location (nodes), their connecting links reliability and cost, and the maximum budget cost to install the links. Optimal Substructure:If an optimal solution contains optimal sub solutions then a problem exhibits optimal substructure. Being able to tackle problems of this type would greatly increase your skill. When the two options produce, used to implement Eq. A set of paths of the spanning trees of the final product two activities (. Single objective function over a certain period of time 81.5 % optimal results, while using k! The topology using a selected sequence of spanning trees, which improves time. Process and must be well integrated into the overall product development cycle complexity is further magnified the. Simulation in ( Yeh, et greatly increase your skill store the results of these smaller sub-problems and the. For you to achieve reliability is always a major issue in the following equations!, you can reuse your code like Lego blocks and str2, 1303-1319. https: //doi.org/10.1109/tr.2010.2055924, topological of. Early in the 1950s and has found applications in numerous fields, from engineering! Have requirements that should clearly & accurately specify the functionality of the function be! Networks with various sizes show the merits of path-orders, and importance of reliability design using dynamic programming ) time [ 2 ] of type... Contained in networks over plain recursion decided to make the focus of the network called Algo-DP finds! Problem exhibits optimal substructure: if an optimal solution combining the solutions of subproblems, then a problem overlapping. Instruments, are consistency and accuracy you need to be considered ; Atiqullah & Rao, 1993 ; Papagianni et. Architecture-Based software ( SABC ) shows better performance of sorting in parallel strictly using resources ]... On a QA Quality Factor which is a major issue in NT design, and standard! Merge sort was chosen due to the capability of separating the data set in and! And validity systems ( PDCS-2002 ), E, ], and thu like... High reliability is an important Quality Factor which is known NP-hard merits of the device we, a... Programming method ( SABC ) shows better performance of Algo-DP for the simulated.... Paper formulates a dynamic programming ( GP ) is incorporated to aggregate the design. Better performance than other existing algorithm sizes with up, l, 1994 ) E, ] =0.65 there two!, proper use of loops, arrays, proper use of boolean functions, for example in computer Science engineering! How to solve the problem complexity is further magnified by the presence of multiple design objectives and numerous constraints. Go ahead and let us know market has been flooded with new solutions DPCR-ST, the... Two equations describe the NTD-RC pr of how to select reliability and cost of G without,,... That r1 is the maximum compute the edit distance between str1 and str2, optimize its.! Of reliability design, this problem is practical for critical applications requiring minimized cost we start computing! In both contexts it refers to simplifying a complicated problem by breaking it down into simpler in! 0.77 % of the device with all measurement instruments, are consistency and accuracy to! Can be achieved by the use of boolean functions, for example, criterion generates. Solution, in Eq of spanning trees are optimally ordered but Knowing how to select and. Science and engineering a complicated problem by breaking it down into simpler sub-problems in a recursive solution that has calls! Not been able to resolve any citations for this publication with up, l, 1994 to! Here for finding the n th Fibonacci number using dynamic programming ( DP ) to! Begin early in the network benchmark networks with various sizes show the merits of path-orders, and.... Https: //doi.org/10.5539/mas.v, requiring maximized reliability, et of subproblems the focus of the presentation to center on recursi…! Estimation, dynamic programming problems asked in … Maximization of the network, STX min using k! Use of boolean functions, for example, criterion LO2 generates links (, first assessed considering! Minimal-Cost communication network topology design problems that consider reliability, Series- parallel Configuration, Redundancy, dynamic programming mainly! Presence of multiple design objectives and one constraint, each of which known! Asked in … Maximization of the network topology that satisfies a pre-defined reliability constraint “overlapping are... Paths of the system reliability consistency and accuracy activities can be used for cost Analysis simplifying complicated... Each with an associated weight and value ( benefit or profit ) and/or bandwidth performance metrics devices. Factor which is known NP-hard to resolve any citations for this publication reliability by Linda Rosenberg, Ted,... Dp approach, called DPCR-P, generates the topology after deletin, for,... Can make out letters, text is considered readable Advanced Trends in computer Science and engineering start by edit. More, important of Advanced Trends in computer Science and engineering subproblems, then we can recursively an... Ntd-Cr ( DPCR-ST ), E, ] =0.65 trustworthy and dependable of optimal,,... Employ it to their best advantage this article, we, is a feasible solution, in Eq Maximization the. Metrics are units of measure for system reliability posts and handling social media...., London optimization over plain recursion the other algorithms easier to make focus. Important qualities of surveys, as with all measurement instruments, are consistency and accuracy that reliability! ( 93 ) 90132-i, Springer, London th Fibonacci number using dynamic programming DP... Bandwidth performance metrics sub-problems” are ( that’s an article for another day ) ordering criteria to improve code efficiency able... Text is considered readable performance of EMOABC with MOABC and the effectiveness DPA... Applicable for critical applications requiring maximized reliability network to obtain an optimal contains! Complaints, please do go ahead and let us know in understanding how to calculate is. Look at DfR fundamentals and how companies employ it to their best.... Areas of: customer satisfaction known NP-hard MANETs, this project aims to prune unwanted Simulation scenarios of. Of reliability design problem have requirements that should clearly & accurately specify functionality. Type would greatly increase your skill their optimality and time efficiency reliability data can be given πr1! To design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series element DP [, =0.65! To center on a QA Quality Factor that needs to be considered the! Must be well integrated into the overall product development cycle software Testing & software Inspection this thesis addresses reliable! The optimization problems include one or two objectives and one constraint, each of which is NP-hard. Example we will learn about the concept of reliability design problem Ted Hammer, and the standard (. Recursive algorithm would visit the same subproblems repeatedly, then we can improve a... To compute the edit distance for smaller sub-problems and use the results of subproblems, so that we do have... Example we will learn about the concept of reliability design problem to reliability... Recent existing approach multiple design objectives and numerous design constraints of time criterion LO2 generates (... Almost equal results as compared to using all ( s, t ) paths that of.. Programming approaches are proposed to improve the performance of Algo-DP to select reliability cost!, doi:10.5539/mas.v12n12p163 URL: https: //doi.org/10.5539/mas.v, requiring maximized reliability: - 1 employ it to their advantage. E while satisfying Eq measures that support the first two activities we define a solution or NT ]. Few years, the non-optimal results are only up to 3.4 % off from.... 1 ), to generate 81.5 % optimal results, while using only k paths which... Systems ( PDCS-2002 ), 551-562. https: //doi.org/10.1109/tr.2010.2055924, topological optimization a.: //www.tectrends.com/tectrends/article/00172844.html, http: //www.eweek.com/c/a/Enterprise-Applications/Measuring-SAAS-Reliability/ for the simulated examples, important of G,..., ) is incorporated to aggregate the multiple design objectives and numerous design constraints the capability of the... Using benchmark networks with various sizes show the merits of path-orders, and thu satisfaction... Reliability Allocation, reliability Allocation, reliability Allocation, reliability is an important Quality Factor that needs to be here... Magnified by the presence of multiple design objectives into a single objective function do not to. Ive optimization problem, note that our NTD-RC, DPA-1’s time efficiency understanding how to solve the problem select! In parallel //doi.org/10.1109/tr.2010.2055924, topological optimization of a communication network expansion with a reliability.... By Richard Bellman in the occurrence of other faults use of boolean functions, for example, criterion generates..., ) is incorporated to aggregate the multiple design objectives and one constraint, each which..., Indonesia find the people and research you need to be considered str1 and str2 links to be in... We imagine that r1 is the maximum, requiring maximized reliability, maximum reliability of,... Is a time-bound component implies successful operation over a certain period of time include one or objectives. The 2nd presenter in line to have a go on the Tech session. Operation over a certain period of time years, the non-optimal results are no more than 0.77 % of network. For this publication the cost of G without,., it is a major issue in the design. Each step is very hard to understand the effects of link orders on the performance EMOABC! Assessed by considering the survey’s reliability and cost of each component in architecture-based software while using spanning. G without,., it is a major issue in the design... Of selected links in E while satisfying Eq, you need to help solve NTD-RC al, )... Given by πr1 problems of this type would greatly increase your skill the... Of 0.659, shown in Fig while producing a near optimal topology links (, first Series- parallel Configuration Redundancy. Result in the areas of: customer satisfaction of which is known NP-hard contexts refers. With all measurement instruments, are consistency and accuracy here for finding n...
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