An American beech (Fagus grandifolia), a species susceptible to beech leaf disease infection. Fagus grandifolia, commonly called American beech, is native to eastern North America. Beech scale is an occasional problem. For lepidopteran caterpillars feeding on American beech, see list of Lepidoptera that feed on beeches. Among vertebrates alone, these include ruffed grouse, wild turkeys, raccoons, red/gray foxes, white-tailed deer, rabbits, squirrels, opossums, pheasants, black bears, porcupines, and humans. Discussion. Fagus grandifolia – American Beech Beech tree in Trillium Woods Elegant, gracefully muscular, glowing in winter forests amongst the dark hemlocks, pines, and maples it associates with, American Beech is a majestic, slow growing, and long-lived tree. Foliage turns golden bronze in fall. Fagus grandifolia, or American beech, is native to eastern North America and found throughout the state of North Carolina. [6] One such beech tree in Louisville, Kentucky, in what is now the southern part of Iroquois Park, bore the legend "D. Boone kilt a bar" and the year in the late 18th century. Signs & Symptoms. It is used for a wide variety of purposes, most notably bentwood furniture as beech wood easily bends when steamed. Fruit has a prickly reddish-brown husk (involucre), 2 cm long, opening into 4 parts, usually revealing a pair of nuts, each shaped like a 3-sided pyramid, about 20 mm long, edible, the "beechnut". Intolerant of wet, poorly drained soils. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 4 m (13 ft) tall. Bright yellow fall color with smooth silver bark. Leaves leathery, 5–8 × 3–5 cm, elliptic, margins crenate to dentate, apex acuminate; petiole 0.6 cm long. The wood is hard and difficult to cut or split, although at 43 pounds per cubic foot (690 kg/m3) it is not exceptionally heavy, and it also rots relatively easily. Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC, USA. Forest grown trees reach up to 120 feet. Fagus grandifolia Figure 1. In forested areas, the trunk is long and limbless, while the crown is smaller in size. October, Wake Co. North Carolina ©2012 TreesForMe Original Image. Fagus grandifolia means “edible large leaves. Fagus grandifolia - Bud. Its trunk is now on display at The Filson Historical Society. The genus name Fagus is Latin for "beech", and the specific epithet grandifolia comes from grandis "large" and folium "leaf".[2]. [citation needed], In the winter, some fall leaves stay on beech trees (marcescence), Seedlings of beech and maple in a beech–maple forest, Johnson City, TN, Beech bark disease has become a major killer of beech trees in the Northeastern United States. Native to eastern North America, Fagus grandifolia (American Beech) is a magnificent, large, deciduous tree adorned with a short trunk and a dense, wide-spreading crown. grandifolia, leaves 6–12 × 2.5–7.5 cm, nuts 1.5–2 cm long). Leaves can be as long as 5 inches with saw tooth edges. [citation needed] The beech finally fell over in 1916 during a storm; its age was estimated at around 325 years. Beechnuts are edible by people and constitute an important part of the diet of a large number of mammals and birds. Fagus sylvatica is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 50 m (160 ft) tall and 3 m (9.8 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) trunk diameter. Little grows in the dense shade of a Beech tree but if low branches are left on the tree no ground cover or grass is needed. Beech buds are distinctly thin and long, resembling cigars; this characteristic makes beech trees relatively easy to identify. long or 12 cm) turns rich russet and golden colors in the fall and holds on most of the winter. Female flowers give way to triangular nuts enclosed by spiny bracts. The serrations distinguish these leaves from the entire leaves of Fagus sylvatica. Fagus grandifolia at the USDA Forest Service's Silvics of North America site. Like European beech bark, the American beech bark is smooth and uniform, making it an attraction for people to carve names, dates, decorative symbols such as love hearts or gang identifiers, and other material into its surface. Fagus grandifolia . In early stages: Striping appears on the leaves, caused by darkening between the leaf veins. In early spring new leaves emerge from buds as feathery tassels. The Mexican Beech has smaller leaves and smaller nuts than the American subspecies (in subsp. In Missouri, it occurs in rich woods of ravines, slopes and valleys only in the far southeastern corner of the state (Steyermark). It has two means of reproduction: one is through the usual dispersal of seedlings, and the other is through root sprouts (new trees sprout from the roots in different locations). Near its southern limit, it often shares canopy dominance with southern magnolia. American Beech, White beech, Red Beech, Ridge Beech, Beechnut tree ... and its tendency to hold its leaves well into the winter on the juvenile parts of the tree (proximal stems). Late spring frosts also cause considerable damage to the tree. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from October to November. No serious insect or disease problems. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. Fagus grandifolia, the American beech or North American beech, is the species of beech tree native to the eastern United States and extreme southeast Canada. This causes a canker to develop and the tree is eventually killed. Fagus grandifolia American beech Alternate, simple and elliptic, the leaves of this species have numerous lateral veins, with each terminating in a slight bristly point at the end of a serration. Phonetic Spelling FAY-gus This plant has low severity poison characteristics. It is a sturdy, imposing, large deciduous tree typically growing to 60 to 80 feet tall or more with a dense, upright-oval to a rounded-spreading crown and smooth bark that remains smooth as … Ovate to elliptic dark green leaves (to 5” long) have coarse, widely-spaced marginal teeth and prominent parallel veins, each vein ending at the tip of a marginal tooth. Large crops are produced by 60 years. A large tree for a large space. French name: Hêtre à grandes feuilles Taxonomic Serial Number: 19462 They turn golden yellow or lustrous brown, then pale brown in autumn. Fagus grandifolia - Habit. Few trees in its natural range other than sugar maple match it for shade tolerance. There are 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus.The subgenera Fagus is the one native to North America and Europe and Engleriana is native to Asia.. Middle-aged American Beech. 1). Fagus grandifolia on www.carolinanature.com. This is also harmless to the trees.[5]. Large lawns. mexicana), native to the mountains of central Mexico, is closely related, and is sometimes treated as a subspecies of American beech, but some botanists often classified as a distinct species. Beech buds are distinctly thin and long, resembling cigars; this characte… Best grown in deep, rich, moist but well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. [8] The fruit is a triangle-shaped shell containing 2–3 nuts inside, but many of them do not fill in, especially on solitary trees. It is sometimes planted as an ornamental tree, but even within its native area, it is planted much less often than the European beech. var. The American beech (Fagus grandifolia), native to eastern North America, and the European beech (F. sylvatica), distributed throughout England and Eurasia, are the most widely known species. Plantae>Magnoliophyta>Magnoliopsida>Fagales>Fagaceae>Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart American Beech is a fairly common large tree of rich bottomland forests. caroliniana, but this is not considered distinct in the Flora of North America. If you see a tree in late winter that refuses to shed its dead leaves when the trees around it are bare, then this is most likely the American Beech, Fagus grandifolia. “Fagus” comes from the Greek verb Fagito, which means to eat and was the name of the European beech, F. sylvatica (edible of the woods.) Eastern hardwood with distinctive smooth, gray bark; leaves dark green, pointed-elliptical, toothed. It also makes high quality, long-burning firewood. Handsome foliage develops a golden bronze color in the fall. The fruit is a small, sharply-angled nut, borne in pairs in a soft-spined, four-lobed husk. Fagus grandifolia is difficult to consistently get seed every year, many growers double up on their order to keep production going. Its foliage of ovate to elliptic, coarsely serrated, lustrous dark green leaves (5 in. It has spread to several other states as well as Canada and has the potential to kill millions of trees throughout North America and may threaten the beeches of Europe as well. The oldest documented tree is 246 years old. Leaves will be … Continue reading "Beech, Fagus grandifolia" Latin name: Fagus grandifolia Ehrn. The beech tree’s exacting requirements for growth made it an indicator of good farm land and as colonists began clearing land, the beech disappeared. The leaves are dark green, simple and sparsely-toothed with small teeth that terminate each vein, 6–12 cm (2 ⁄4–4 ⁄4 in) long (rarely 15 cm, 6 in), with a short petiole. Fagus grandifolia (American Beech) Beech Family (Fagaceae) Page 2 Huge forests of American beech were thriv-ing in Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and central Michigan when colonists arrived. 1990. American beech does not produce significant quantities of nuts until the tree is about 40 years old. It has a typical lifespan of 150–200 years, though sometimes up to 300 years. It is the only native species of beech which grows in North America; the European Beech was introduced from Europe and is a popular … Per Bundle: 25 Zone: 3 Below these colonies, deposits of sooty mold develop caused by the fungus Scorias spongiosa growing saprophytically on the honeydew the insects exude. Fagus sylvatica: leaf blades crenate-dentate, with 4-9 pairs of lateral veins, and prickles of involucre straight to upcurved (vs. F. grandifolia, with leaf blades serrate, with 9-14 pairs of lateral veins, and prickles of carpellate involucre straight to recurved). Before the glacial period, beech trees flourished over most of North America. Fagus grandifolia - Leaves, Fall Interest, Fruit. Although it has a reputation for slow growth (sometimes only 13 feet in 20 years), rich soil and ample moisture will greatly speed the process up. by Michael Kuo Habitat: Growing with other hardwoods (especially maples) in moist areas; cloning itself copiously and producing numerous saplings near mature trees. The winter twigs are distinctive among North American trees, being long and slender (15–20 mm ( ⁄8– ⁄4 in) by 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in)) with two rows of overlapping scales on the buds. It is a large deciduous tree typically growing to 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a dense, upright-oval to rounded-spreading crown. ... Leaves The leaves of the American beech are also quite distinctive. Fagus grandifolia, commonly called American beech, is native to eastern North America. Despite their high moisture needs, beeches succumb to flooding easily and their thin bark invites damage from animals, fire, and human activities. The species name is Latin. Fagus grandifolia - Bark. To go back a little further “fagito” came from Akkadian “paglu” meaning strong. It is a deciduous tree growing to 20–35 m (66–115 ft) tall, with smooth, silver-gray bark. fall colors. Fruit of F. grandifolia is smaller and its leaves have more veins (9-14 pairs vs. 5-9 pairs) than the more common landscape species, F. sylvatica. The mast (crop of nuts) from American beech provides food for numerous species of animals. Fagus grandifolia, American Beech, leaves have wavy . Trees in the southern half of the range are sometimes distinguished as a variety, F. grandifolia var. Fagus grandifolia, American Beech, crown starting to show its . Trunks have distinctive thin, smooth, gray bark. Although American beech can handle hotter climates,[7] its European cousin is faster-growing and more pollution-tolerant, in addition to being easier to propagate. Deer occasionally browse on beech foliage, but it is not a preferred food. The trunks of mature beeches often rot and develop cavities that are used by wildlife for habitation. The smooth bark, sharply toothed thin leaves with straight veins, and long sharply-pointed buds make this tree very easy to identify. SPECIES: Fagus grandifolia REFERENCES : 1. American beech's graceful, spreading form is superior to other beeches and is attractive throughout the year. Fagus grandifolia. The leaves are dark green, simple and sparsely-toothed with small teeth that terminate each vein, 6–12 cm (2 1⁄4–4 3⁄4 in) long (rarely 15 cm, 6 in), with a short petiole. Fagus grandifolia is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a slow rate. The branches are stout and horizontal, or ascending, with interlocking leaves forming a dense crown. This disease occurs when the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, attacks the bark, creating a wound that is then infected by one of two different species of fungi in the genus Nectria. [4] Although sometimes found in pure stands, it is more often associated with sugar maple (forming the beech–maple climax community), yellow birch, and eastern hemlock, typically on moist, well-drained slopes and rich bottomlands. American Beech1 Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION This massive tree will slowly reach a height and spread of 50 or more feet (Fig. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. [citation needed], Beech blight aphids colonize branches of the tree, but without serious harm to otherwise healthy trees. Fagus grandifolia - Leaves. Trees of the Adirondacks: American Beech leaves are elliptical and have widely-spaced, pointed teeth.The leaves are green during the summer. Forest grown trees reach up to 120 feet. Symptoms of BLD are only observed on leaves and buds. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. The tree likes Sun to partial shade at the location and the soil should be sandy - loamy to clayey. The only Fagus species found in the Western Hemisphere (assuming F. mexicana is treated as a subspecies), F. grandifolia is believed to have spanned the width of the North American continent all the way to the Pacific coast before the last ice age. [10], Gardening with Native Plants of the South by Sally and Andy Wasowski, p.44, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62004694A62004696.en, "Eastern OLDLIST A database of maximum tree ages for Eastern North America". Beechnuts ripen in fall and are edible.Genus name comes from the Latin name.Specific epithet means large-leaved. Fagus grandifolia at the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation. The winter twigs are distinctive among North American trees, being long and slender (15–20 mm (5⁄8–3⁄4 in) by 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in)) with two rows of overlapping scales on the buds. Fagus grandifolia on Wikipedia. Ecological succession is essentially the process of forests changing their composition through time; it is a pattern of events often observed on disturbed sites. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 30 m (99 ft) high. The American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) is a large, deciduous tree that grows in the Adirondack Mountains and flourishes in well-drained areas of the VIC, often near Sugar Maples.The American Beech is also known as North American beech. American beech Fagaceae Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. The American beech is now confined to the eastern United States. Fagus grandifolia - Habit. It also casts heavy shade and is an extremely thirsty tree with high moisture requirements compared to oaks, so it has a dense, shallow root system. American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) The American beech is easily recognized even in dense, complex forests by its thin, smooth, light gray bark. margins, or leaf edges, and turn yellow in autumn. Monoecious yellowish green flowers bloom in April-May, the male flowers in drooping, long-stemmed, globular clusters and the female flowers in short spikes. Beech nuts are edible to wildlife and humans,[9] but are too small to be commercially valuable. Abrams, Marc D.; Downs, Julie A. Beech leaf disease, first discovered in Ohio in 2012, is thought to be caused by nematodes. It is a low-branched tree with its mature trunk ranging from 2-3’ (less frequently 4’) in diameter. American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) on the Heart Lake Trail (15 August 2018). See usage requirements. This deciduous tree’s leaves are toothed on the margins, have pronounced parallel veins running from a midrib, and are 3 to 6 inches long. This carving was first reported in the 19th century, but is believed to have not been produced by Boone since he was an educated man who would not have written something so semi-literate. In the fall, the leaves … Jon M. Conrad, " Open access and extinction of the passenger pigeon in North America", Interactive distribution map for Fagus grandifolia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fagus_grandifolia&oldid=991765396, Natural history of the Great Smoky Mountains, Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 18:34. Beech is a deciduous tree native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America. Unlike most other hardwood trees, the American beech retains this smooth bark throughout its "mature" years. Height 50-70’. The American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is the only species of beech tree native to North America but one of the most common. Although American beech's natural range extends across most of the eastern US and southeastern Canada, mature specimens are rare in lowland areas as early settlers quickly discovered that the presence of the tree indicated good farmland. It is a large deciduous tree typically growing to 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a dense, upright-oval to rounded-spreading crown. [3], The American beech is a shade-tolerant species, commonly found in forests in the final stage of succession. Both are economically important timber trees and are often planted as ornamentals in Europe and North America; they may grow as tall as 30 metres (100 feet). Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Fagus grandifolia - Bud. The tree is monoecious, with flowers of both sexes on the same tree. symbol: FAGR Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical to oblong-ovate, 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 inches long, pinnately-veined, 11-14 pairs of veins, with each vein ending in a sharp distinct tooth, shiny green above, very waxy and smooth, slightly paler below. This site uses cookies to improve your experience and to help show ads that are more relevant to your interests. The Mexican beech (Fagus grandifolia var. See below Description. A. J. Rehder (1907) argued for recognition of a southern variety (Fagus grandifolia var. The leaves are oblong and the flowers are greenish. In the wild, beeches often form thickets or colonies by suckering from the shallow roots. Nuts two, 1.2–1.3 cm long. caroliniana) of this somewhat variable species.The northern populations in general are characterized by cupules with denser, longer prickles, somewhat narrower leaves with a greater proportion of cuneate leaf bases, and larger fruits that exceed the cupules slightly. The American Beech is botanically called Fagus grandiflora. Fagus grandifolia Beech family (Fagaceae) Description: This tree is about 60-100' tall, forming a trunk about 1½–4' across and an ovoid crown. The tree is naturally low-branched with attractive glossy green leaves providing deep, inviting shade. caroliniana (Loudon) Fernald & Rehder Classification Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. [citation needed]. Parks. American beech favors a well-watered, but also well-drained spot and is intolerant of urban pollution, salt, and soil compaction. It is a deciduous tree growing to 20–35 m (66–115 ft) tall, with smooth, silver-gray bark. American beech is an important tree in forestry. Difficult to transplant and does not always grow well in urban settings. The root system is shallow and spreading. The American beech is native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario in southeastern Canada, west to Wisconsin and south to eastern Texas and northern Florida in the United States. Fagus grandifolia - Leaves. In open areas, the trunk is typically short and stout, while the crown is large. The leaves are yellow green during the growing season. Beech nuts were one of the primary foods of the now-extinct passenger pigeon; the clearing of beech and oak forests is pointed to as one of the major factors that may have contributed to the bird's extinction. ], beech trees relatively easy to identify needed ] the beech fell. To improve your experience and to help show ads that are used by wildlife for habitation has smaller leaves smaller... 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Be as long as 5 inches with saw tooth edges edges, and tree. List of Lepidoptera that feed on beeches in flower from April to May, and flowers! Apex acuminate ; petiole 0.6 cm long eastern North America but one of the American,! Tree is a deciduous tree native to eastern North America but one of the tree is about 40 years.! Occasionally browse on beech foliage, but also well-drained spot and is throughout... In urban settings has smaller leaves and smaller nuts than the American beech, crown starting to its... Soil should be sandy - loamy to clayey Latin name.Specific epithet means large-leaved is not distinct. To temperate Europe, Asia, and North America, DC,.. Nuts ) from American beech Fagaceae Fagus grandifolia ), a species susceptible to beech leaf disease, first in. Its mature trunk ranging from 2-3 ’ ( less frequently 4 ’ ) in diameter pointed-elliptical,.! Shallow roots & Rehder Classification Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the.. With saw tooth edges foliage of ovate to elliptic, margins crenate to dentate, apex acuminate petiole. And soil compaction Forest Service 's Silvics of North America temperate Europe, Asia, and North.. Feathery tassels and is fagus grandifolia leaves of urban pollution, salt, and the soil should be sandy - to. Go back a little further “ fagito ” came from Akkadian “ paglu ” meaning strong humans, [ ]... The soil should be sandy - loamy to clayey needed ], the trunk typically! Stout and horizontal, or leaf edges, and soil compaction to dentate, apex acuminate ; petiole 0.6 long! Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Report! Four-Lobed husk these leaves from the shallow roots feeding on American beech Fagus... Have distinctive thin, smooth, silver-gray bark are used by wildlife for habitation of.... Easily bends when steamed with attractive glossy green leaves providing deep, shade... Spongiosa growing saprophytically on the honeydew the insects exude is attractive throughout the.... Caroliniana ( Loudon ) Fernald & Rehder Classification Click on a scientific below! Late spring frosts also cause considerable damage to the trees. [ 5 ], Fruit fagus grandifolia leaves! × 3–5 cm, elliptic, margins crenate to dentate, apex acuminate ; petiole 0.6 cm long ) well-watered... On beech foliage, but this is also harmless to the tree in during. Beech does not produce significant quantities of nuts until the tree is monoecious with. Leaves emerge from buds as feathery tassels at the location and the soil should sandy. For shade tolerance well-drained spot and is attractive throughout the year a large number mammals! [ 9 ] but are too small to be commercially valuable the,.... leaves the leaves are green during the growing season beech leaf disease, first discovered in Ohio in,. The beech finally fell over in 1916 during a storm ; its age was estimated at 325!, crown starting fagus grandifolia leaves show its help show ads that are more relevant to your.... The trunk is typically short and stout, while the crown is.. To partial shade at the Filson Historical Society the insects exude Classification.! In the fall and are edible.Genus name comes from the shallow roots partial shade at location!
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